Адміністративне правo і процес
ISSN: 2227-796X (Print), ISSN: 2617-8354 (Online)

Науково-практичний журнал‚ заснований Київським національним університетом імені Тараса Шевченка

#2(12)/2015

The paper investigates the possibility of introducing a separate monetary fund for financing public associations. Analyzing the experience of foreign countries, the author argues that by its legal nature and characteristic features such fund must be referred to a public monetary fund. It is proposed to determine the status of the National fund to support the institutional development of civil society as a centralized state budget fund.

 

Статтю присвячено історико-правовому аналізу копного судочинства як особливої форми громадського судочинства в Україні та ролі виборного начала в його становленні. Проаналізовано правовий статус копних суддів та порядок їх обрання. Автор акцентує увагу, що народ сам стежив за громадським спокоєм і за дотриманням свого права та самостійно здійснював народну судову владу.

У статті обґрунтовується потреба гармонізації норм кримінального законодавства з адміністративним. Аналізується співвідношення кримінальної та адміністративної відповідальності за введення в обіг небезпечної продукції. Сформульовано рекомендації щодо вдосконалення законодавства про кримінальну відповідальність за вчинення таких дій.

 У запропонованій статті на прикладі сучасної судової практики в Україні та з урахуванням чинного законодавства України, Республіки Білорусь і Російської Федерації проведено порівняльний аналіз кримінально-правового застосування та ролі в боротьбі з браконьєрством такої кваліфікаційної ознаки під час незаконного полювання та зайняття рибним, звіриним або іншим водним добувним промислом, як «істотна шкода».

В статье приводится перевод содержания Части общей, размещенной в первой главе Уголовного казначейского кодекса Республики Польша, который был принят 10 сентября 1999 г.

Определяется структура Части общей Уголовного казначейского кодекса, таких его отдельных разделов, как «вступительные положения», «исключение наказания виновного лица», «казначейские преступления», «казначейские проступки», «разъяснение понятий, используемых в законе». Кроме этого в тексте Кодекса определяется содержание таких юридических конструкций, как «деяние», «казначейское преступление», «казначейский проступок», «запрещенное деяние», «активное поведение», «отсылочная ответственность», «совокупное наказание», «угроза наказания», «общественно вредное деяние», «поведение», «виновная ответственность», «юридические последствия совершения казначейского преступления и казначейского проступка».

У статті досліджено економічні, політичні, соціальні, ідеологічні та спеціальні юридичні гарантії, що забезпечують реалізацію принципу законності у сфері використання й охорони земель як основного національного багатства та власності народу України. Зроблено висновок про їх недостатню ефективність у сучасних складних економічних, політичних та соціальних умовах.

 

У цій статті на основі використання різноманітних класифікаційних підстав наведено розгорнуту класифікацію заходів запобігання банкрутству (неспроможності), розроблено багаторівневу систему таких заходів, що можуть застосовуватися як до порушення провадження у справі про банкрутство (неспроможність) так і після такого порушення, запропоновано доктринальне визначення зазначених заходів.

Одним з основних предметів уваги адміністративного права є дослідження особливосте статусу, функцій і змісту діяльності суб’єктів, які уповноважені на виконання функцій держави або місцевого самоврядування, розробляючи при цьому особливу, спеціальну термінологію. Проте такі дослідження і розробки не завжди враховуються законодавцем при використанні відповідних термінів у нормативно-правових актах інших галузей права (наприклад, кримінального права), що призводить до різних підходів у використанні термінології, а отже й до виникнення колізій у правовому регулюванні. Ми спробуємо визначити деякі аспекти таких проблемних «сутичок» і запропонувати можливі варіанти їх усунення.

Introduction
A local self-government in the Slovak Republic is a practical application of the principle of subsidiarity. According to this principle it is believed that making policy at the lowest possible level of vertical state structure will ensure the lowest possible costs and the highest effectiveness. This idea was firstly ex- plicitly mentioned in Pope Leo XIII´s famous Encyc- lical Rerum Novarum, published in 1891.1 After the Second World War, there spread the principle of subsid- iarity to the most countries of the western world as one of the prominent principles applied in the constitutions of European states and EU law.2
Practical implications, however, are different in many countries. In some countries this principle is embodied in the form of government – federal government. But subsidiarity can also be applied in the unitary states, either as an interests’ self-government or as a local self-government.

 

Bayik O. I. Research on the notion of tax in the countries of Ancient East.
The article analyzes an establishment and the development of taxes in some countries of the Ancient East. Particularly, emergence and types of taxes in ancient Egypt, Bab- ylon, India and China are researched. The author of the article defines how taxes have been assessed, paid and collected in each country.
Key words: tax, Ancient East, payment of taxes, assessment, collection of taxes.

Lyubich L.D. The legal status of unborn child in legal relations on realization of human reproductive rights.
In the article the legal regulation of relations on realization of human reproductive rights is considered from the perspective of legal personality of unborn child. Analysis of the norms of national legislation leads to the conclusion that in the relations about artificial termination of pregnancy (abortion) and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) em- bryo (unborn child) serves as the object of these relationships, and devoid of any per- sonality.
Legislative confirmation of the legality of operations of abortion at women will contra- dicts the Part 3 of Article 51 and Article 27 of the Constitution of Ukraine in the part of child welfare and the inherent right to life. The irresolvable conflict arises between the reproductive right of women to termination of pregnancy and the right to life of the con- ceived by her child since both these rights can not be realized simultaneously. In our view, such freedom of reproductive women choice puts this right into question, because it contradicts universal and constitutional legal principles.
In p. 8.1 "Рrocedure of application of assisted reproductive technologies in Ukraine", approved by the Order of Ministry of Health of 09.09.2013 № 787, actions concerning "reduction" of embryos (manipulations on reducing of the number of developing em- bryos) are governed in purpose to prevent prenatal and obstetrical complications asso- ciated with multiple pregnancy. Indications for embryo reduction is the presence of two or more fetuses after use of ART in the presence of an application for reduction of em- bryos. Choice of embryos that remain and are subject for reduction, should be appropri- ate taking into account the ultrasound data characterizing their state for up to 12 weeks of pregnancy. According to Article 28 of the Constitution of Ukraine and Article 289 of Civil Code of Ukraine, the natural person has the right to personal inviolability and shall not be subjected to torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In our opinion, the reduction of viable embryos after 12 weeks of pregnancy falls under the def- inition of "cruel, inhuman treatment".
To resolve the contradictions in legal regulation of the status of human embryos, artificial termination of pregnancy, the use of ART and biomedical experimentation on embryos it should be recognized that abortion and "reduction" of embryos in ART is a violation of the right to life of the unborn child.
It is necessary to secure the protection of the unborn child (embryo) and recognition for his human dignity from the moment of impregnation by the following formulation of Part 1 Article 27 of the Constitution of Ukraine: "Every person has the inalienable right to life from the moment of impregnation".
Unborn child has the potential to realize his rights and obligations after his birth, and moral rights (the basic element of legal status - the right to life, the right to respect for his dignity) - from the moment of impregnation, so it should be granted the status of sub- ject of law which requires special care and assistance.

Parakuda I.V. Рroduct as a storage object at goods warehouse.
The specificity of the commodity storage in warehouse resides in the following: (a) a par- ticular subject; (b) a particular object; (c) the special nature of the formalization of the agreement. The article investigates the storage facility in the goods warehouse, which is a commodity. We have defined the concept of «goods» in a broad (as tangible or intangi- ble property held for sale on the market) and narrow (as the product of labor, produced for exchange) sense. We have analysed the existing definition of the «goods» under the current legislation. It was found that the core of the concept of the «goods» forms of con- sumer and exchange value.
Products have been classified into types according to different criteria: (a) use value (capital goods, consumer goods and products, general purpose); (b) the terms of use (short-term use goods and consumer durables); Turnover on the criterion (available in turnover, limited in circulation and withdrawn from circulation).
It is proved that transferability of the goods (its ability to circulation, ie the transition from the property of one person to another (free or with certain restrictions)) is its es- sential feature. All products are subjects to the exchange (the scope of commodity-money relations), but not all of them are subjects to the sphere of circulation (not all products are judged by the criterion of Turnover). The object of the sphere of circulation is only a commodity that has the status of a property right object.
The concept of product as an object of economic and trade activities is limited to the sphere of material production.
We have investigated the relation of the terms «goods» and «product», «products» that are often used in the current legislation. The latter refers to raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products used for production purposes. Conclusion: the goods ap- pear from such labor product or benefit (“products”), which are not intended for their own consumption, is it should be a public good. Goods mean a product of labor or ben- efit aimed to satisfy the specific needs of the person and dedicated to the exchange (buy- ing and selling).
The overall conclusion is as follows: the word «goods» in the context of storage is used by the legislator to emphasize: (a) special transferability of the things to be de- posited in the warehouse; (b) the nature of the participation of the warehouse in the material turnover, which, in particular, can be expressed in the right to dispose the goods, if the latter condition is provided by the legal act and/or contract. The main trait of the specified type of storage mostly resides in the transferability of the stored objects.

Slobodianyk N.S. Foreign experience of judiciary formation.
The article highlights the main approaches to the formation of the judicial corps in foreign countries. The emphasis is made on the research of foreign experience. It analyzes current models of selection of judges and their dismissal. On this basis, are outlined the main directions of new initiatives in reforming the judiciary in Ukraine. Foreign experience of formation of the judicial corps in foreign countries is very important for Ukraine.
Picking the judiciary courts boils down to two questions:
1) who may be replaced judges and 2) how should be re- placed. The procedure for replacing judicial positions can be performed in different ways, and they all boil down to four model systems: 1) the election; 2) election of judges by their peers; 3) appointment of the government at his discretion; and
4) the appointment by the Government of the competition.
In France, all decisions on the appointment of judges to the posi- tion of President are signed by the recommendation of the High Council of Justice (for judges of Court of Cassation) and the Ministry of Justice and the Council of Judges (for other judges). In Germany, the academic training of German lawyers must necessarily be combined with practical and professional training for future lawyers of different law enforcement agen- cies and it is a separated stage of preparation of judicial can- didates. In addition there is also a serious psychological and psycho-emotional training of judicial candidates.
In Sweden, most of the candidate judges begin service after graduation. Replacement of public office is based on busi- ness considerations, merit and competence individuals.
In Poland, the appointment of judges (both general jurisdic- tion of the military and administrative) is done by the Presi- dent. Important in the formation of the judiciary in Poland is Polish Union Council of Justice.
Today in Ukraine can be implemented the principle of elect- ing judges to restore public confidence in the judiciary. So should formulate a model that will ensure the most effective implementation of the idea of direct election of judges by people. This model should have optimally balanced rights and legitimate interests of the citizen and the state.
 

Tagiev S. R. Comparative analysis of criminal responsibility for attack at judge, people's assessors and jurors.
The analysis of the criminal codes of foreign countries, providing criminal responsibility for attacks on persons who realize justice, including judges, people's assessors and jurors is useful for public review of foreign legislation, and for its possible incorporation into national law. Bringing Ukrainian legislation to European standards under the provisions established within the Council of Europe and the European Union for European crimi- nal law is a necessary condition for large-scale reforms in Ukraine, including in the area of criminal justice. Responsibility for the attack on the judge, people's assessor, juror provided for in legislation of many countries in the world, although the approaches to the settlement of criminal protection of this category of people is quite diverse. Unquestion- ably, only by means of legal protection of persons carrying out justice, the issue of judicial independence wasn’t resolved. It is unable to create a reliable shield of justice only using sanctions. However, increasing the efficiency and safety of judges, people's assessors and jurors through their criminal legal protection is an important element of deterrence from criminal attacks. Criminal legal protection of judge, assessor or juror is an important as- pect of independence of the person who administers justice, and therefore is of great impor- tanceforthe efficiency of the entire judiciaryasawhole, enablestherealitiesof life to create a democratic judiciary.

Трухан Я. Р., Влодарек-Подгорска К. Обеспечение национальной безопасности как условие существования государства.
В статье авторы предприняли попытку дать характеристику одного из важ- нейших в настоящее время видов безопасности, т.е. национальной безопасности. В статье подробно описываются основные понятия, свзязанные с национальной безопасностью, а также условия обеспечения национальной безопасности. Особое внимание уделено влиянию последствий обеспечения национальной безопасности на существование отдельных стран.